What is a mutual fund and its types

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Have you ever heard about Mutual Fund? Do you know how they work? If not, I will tell you about it today.

Many people only make many imaginations in their mind as soon as they hear about them and without knowing anything they think about it in the opposite way. Which is not right to do at all.

So today I thought why not remove the grief that is sitting on the minds of your people about Mutual Funds in Hindi and make you aware of its truth.

Mutual fund is a very good and easy way to earn money. You do not have to have thousands of rupees to invest in it. You can also invest in it at the rate of only 500 rupees every month.

Many people consider Mutual Funds and stock / share market to be same but this is not the case at all. Mutual fund and share market are both market share but there is a lot of difference between the two.

From this post today, we will know what is the difference between them and after all what is this Mutual Fund and how can we safely invest in it?

What is a mutual fund?

Mutual Fund as the name suggests, what happens? It is a fund (collection) in which a lot of investors’ money is put together mutually. This group of funds is managed to earn the highest possible profits.

Simply put, Mutual Funds are a fund made up of a lot of money. In which the money invested is used to invest in different places and it is tried that the investor should be given maximum profit from his money.

The management of the fund is done by a professional person who is called a professional fund manager.

The job of a proffesional fund manager is to look after the mutual fund and to make more profit by putting the money of the fund in the right place. If put in easy words, its job is to convert the money put by the people into profit.

Mutual Funds are registered under SEBI (Securities and Exchange Board of India) which controls the market in India. The job of securing investors’ money in the market is done by SEBI. SEBI ensures that some company is not cheating people.

Mutual funds have been present in India for a very long time, but even today people do not know much about it. In early times people believed that Mutual Funds are only for the rich.

But this is not the case at all and in today’s time this perception seems to be changing. People have moved towards Mutual Funds. In today’s time Mutual Funds is not just for the rich.

Rather, one can invest in Mutual Funds at the rate of 500 ₹ per month only. The minimum amount of investment in Mutual Funds is 500 rupees.

History of Mutual Funds in India

The mutual fund industry in India started in 1963 with the formation of the Unit Trust of India (UTI) on India at the initiative of the Reserve Bank of India (RBI) and the Government of India.

Its main objective was to attract small investors and to make them aware of the topics related to investment and market.

The UTI was formed in 1963 under an Act of Parliament. It was established by the Reserve Bank of India. And initially it worked under RBI.

In 1978, the UTI was separated from the RBI. The Industrial Development Bank of India (IDBI) got the authority of regulatory and administrative control in place of RBI. And UTI started working under it.

Development of Mutual Funds in India can be divided into several stages. As such the first phase was from 1964 to 1987, in which UTI had a fund of 6700Cr ₹.

After this, the second phase starts from 1987, the entry of public sector fund started in it. During this time, many banks got the opportunity to create Mutual Funds.

SBI created the first NONUTI mutual fund. The second phase ended in 1993 but by the end of the second phase, AUM i.e. Assets under management increased to ₹ 47004CR more than ₹ 6700Cr. There was a lot of enthusiasm in the mutual fund among investors in this phase.

The third phase started in 1993 which lasted till 2003. Private sector funds got approval in this phase. In this stage, investors got more options of Mutual Funds. This phase ended in 2003.

The fourth phase started in 2003 which is still going on. In 2003, UTI was divided into two separate phases. The first SUUTI and the second UTI mutual fund, which worked as per the rules of SEBI MF. Read the impact of 2009 economic recession on the whole world.

Investors also suffered a lot in India. Due to this, the trust of the people decreased slightly from mutual funds. But gradually this industry started coming back on track. In 2016, AUM was ₹ 15.63 trillion. Which was the highest ever.

The number of investors has already crossed 5 CR and millions of new investors are joining every month. This phase has proved to be golden for mutual funds.

Types of Mutual Funds

There are many types of mutual funds. We can divide them into 2 categories. The first is the type of Mutual Funds based on the structure and the second the type of Mutual Funds based on the asset.

A) Types of Mutual Funds depending on structure

1. Open ended mutual fund

Open ended funds = In this scheme, investors are allowed to sell or buy funds at any time. There is no fixed date or period for buying or selling funds.

These funds provide liquidity to the investors and hence are well liked by the investors.

2. Close ended Mutual Funds

This type of plan has a fixed maturity period and investors can buy funds only during the fund period. And such fund shares are also included in the market. After this they are also used for trading.

3. Interval Funds

This type of Mutual Funds consists of both open ended funds and close ended funds. In this, the facilities of both the funds are predominant.

It allows investors to trade funds at pre-determined intervals. And the funds can be traded on that fixed period.

This is based on the type of Mutual Funds based on the structure, now we will talk about how many Mutual Funds are taken on the basis of asset.

B) Types of Mutual Funds based on Assets

1. Debt funds

Debt Funds = The risk to the investor in such funds is very low. Investors invest in debentures, government bonds and other fixed income, which is a safe investment.

Debt funds provide fixed returns. If you want a steady income, then this fund is for you. If the investor’s earnings are more than 10,000 from the funds then the investor will have to pay tax.

2. Liquid Mutual Funds

Liquid Funds = This is also a safe option to invest. Liquid funds invest in short-term debt instruments. So if you want to invest for a short time then liquid funds can be your choice.

3. Equity funds

Equity Funds = Equity funds are for you if you want to get long term profit. These funds invest in the stock market. Such funds also involve risk, but the profit from them is higher than others.

4. Money Market Funds

Such funds provide reasonable returns to investors in the short term. It is invested in safe places.

5. Balanced Mutual Funds

Equity funds and Debt funds have a mixed advantage in such fund schemes. Funds deposited in this type of Mutual Fund are invested both in equity and debt.

This type of fund gives investors stability in income on one hand and on the other hand it also gives impetus to income growth.

Apart from these funds, there are many types of funds, but this is the main and most used funds.

How to invest money in Mutual Fund?

By the way, you will find many such Android apps in the market using which you can easily invest in Mutual Fund. Some of them are special such as Groww, MyCams, InvesTap, KTrack Mobile App, IPRUTouch App etc.

While following my advice, you can use Groww Mutual Fund App. Because I have been using this app for a long time and I have not had any problem so far.

Groww App (Android): – Sign Up Now

Through this link, you must first sign up in the Groww App if you do not already have an account then. Once you have created an account, then you can easily invest money in Mutual Fund through this app.

Benefits of Mutual Funds

Although there are many fields of Mutual Funds, but today I will try to give you complete information about the important fields.

1. Professional Management

The money you invest in mutual funds is managed by mutual funds experts with their experience and skills.

Before investing this money, they research the fund in which the money is collected and gather information, if after that according to the information collected by them, then they invest only if their money increases.

2. Diversification

The basic mantra of safe investment is that instead of putting your money in one place, distribute it in many places and invest in many places. Every mutual fund invests money in different places.

Good funds can be invested not only in other company but also in other sector or maybe different size company. Which gives maximum protection to investors.

3. Variety

There is something for every kind of person in Mutual Funds today. All types of funds are available for those who want high returns, for those with high returns, maximum secured funds for those who want maximum safe investment.

You wish for any kind of investment, but it is possible that some mutual fund must be created for you and it will sit according to your requirement.

4. Convenience 

You can easily invest in Mutual Funds. You can also withdraw money from funds as easily. To invest, you have to fill a form, which you can fill from both online or offline or anywhere.

After this, you can sell or buy funds both online or offline. Mutual Funds have a lot of options as well as much more facilities.

5. Affordable 

The share price of big companies is very high. Many times you want to invest in those companies, but you are unable to do so because of your low budget. While a lot of people have money together in Mutual Funds, your money is invested in big companies.

And your money earns more profit there. Mutual funds are a way for not only big but small investors to invest in large companies through Mutual Funds.

6. Tax Benefits

Whenever you invest in the stock market, you have to pay tax to buy or sell shares. But in Mutual Funds you get tax exemption.

In some funds, you do not have to pay any tax on your profits for some period. Tax exemption is also a reason why they are becoming very popular.

Before investing in Mutual Funds, collect all the documents and all the information related to the funds. You will be responsible for any damage.

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